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OEM Casting and Forging

Glossary of Casting Terminology "S"

This glossary lists in alphabetical order casting industry terms and their explanations.

Word/Expression Explanation
sampling inspection Inspecting a number of products randomly selected out of the entire production lot.
sand drop A casting defect when some of the sand of a core falls onto the lower mold during clamping, etc., when casting a cylinder head or the like. That sand results in holes on the casting, making it defective.
sand inclusion A casting defect in which sand grains from the mold remain imbedded on the surface of a casting or within the casting itself.
sand removal The removal of casting sand.
sand strip Breaking apart and removing the sand of a core from a cast product by means of vibration or knocking.
sandblast An abrasive blasting method for machining and finishing performed by peening an abrasive polishing material such as sand onto a metal surface.
scale An instrument for measuring weight.
screw Used for fastening objects together and fashioned with helical grooves carved into the surface of a cylindrical or cone-shaped body.
screw hole Cylindrical or cone-shaped holes drilled with helical grooves down their length for receiving a corresponding screw.
seating surface A flat casted surface or machined casting surface for receiving the contact surface pressure of a screw or the like when it is tightened to prevent it from coming loose, etc.
segregation When the composition of elements in an alloy loses uniformity and has uneven distribution due to deposition during the solidification process.
seizure; sand burning A term often used to describe the failure of an internal combustion engine.
With aluminum casting, this refers to a state in which the mold is overheated by the molten metal and its surfaces become worn, eroded or fused with other substances.
With iron casting, this refers to when the molten cast iron reacts to the casting sand and causes the sand to melt into the cast piece.
sensing To measure and notify of things like gas leakage, the surface height of the molten metal, etc., with specialized sensing devices.
sequencer A device that regulates the output of command signals according to a predetermined program based on input signals from switches, sensors or the like. It is called a sequencer as it controls the sequence (order) of output signals.
servo valve A valve governed by electric signals to allow free control of flow rate and pressure through the valve. A servo valve enables a free range of injection settings.
sharp edge A shape with a sharpened edge or the sharpened portion of a mold.
sheet pile A section of usually metal plate used in many civil engineering disciplines interlocked into temporary structures, e.g., for earth retention or enclosures, or as part of a permanent construction. Sheet pile can prevent the rocks, soil and sand on the outside from falling down to the inside of the framework and uniformly spreads the earth pressure across it. They are also sometimes used as a preventative measure against landslides.
shell core A mold core created by using air pressure to blow resin coated sand (sand coated with a thermoset phenolic resin, also referred to as “shell sand”) into a heated mold, and then using the heat of the mold to harden it into the desired shape of the core.
shell core making machine A machine for making cores. Machines for making shell mold cores are commonplace and may be a vertical or horizontal type.
shell mold A mold for molding a shell core.
shell mold process The process of using air pressure to blow resin coated sand (sand coated with a thermoset phenolic resin, also referred to as “shell sand”) into a heated mold, and then using the heat of the mold to harden it and create the desired shape.
shell sand A material for making shell cores produced by kneading phenolic resin into sand. It is also referred to as “resin coated sand” or RCS.
Shocaraiser™ Artificial granular graphite used as a raw material for cast iron (product from Showa Denko K.K.).
shot ball A hard shot medium in granular form or the like used in the shot blasting process.
shotblasting The act of blasting an abrasive shot medium made of fine grains and the like onto a casting as part of the process for surface finishing, deburring, etc.
shotblasting machine A machine for grinding and cleaning the surface of a casting by blasting the piece with a shot material. It removes rust, burrs and harmful substances on the surface of the casting.
shrink scale Metal generally shrinks during solidification and shrinks further after becoming a solid during cooling. If a mold is created without taking this shrinkage into account, the finished product will be smaller than the designated dimensions. Therefore, molds are formed using a shrink scale to calibrate a larger size that includes an allowance for shrinkage. Today, it is referred to as a coefficient for correcting mold dimensions.
shrinkage A casting defect that occurs due to volumetric shrinkage when molten metal cools and solidifies. This defect appears in the final solidified portion as shrinkage cavities, shrinkage porosity and/or external shrinkage cavities.
shrinkage allowance The size (ratio) added to a mold to compensate for the shrinkage metal undergoes during solidification.
shrinkage cavity A defect that occurs due to volumetric shrinkage when molten metal cools and solidifies, forming a cavity within the thick wall portions or the like of a casting.
shrinkage fit A method for setting and fixing a shaft in a hole. A hole that is smaller than the shaft at ambient temperatures is temporarily heated to expand and the shaft is inserted and the hole left to cool, fitting the shaft in place.
silica sand Sand made of quartz grains formed by weathered granite, etc., and used as casting sand.
sintered vent Used as an air or gas vent for purging air or gas from within the mold cavity when a casting is being cast. It is created by inserting copper wires vertically, sintering them with iron powder and then raising the temperature to melt the copper, thus forming holes and a passage for the air/gas to escape from.
slag inclusion A casting defect in which oxides generated while melting the metal or treating molten metal, furnace materials, inclusions (slag) and the like make their way onto the surface of or inside a casting.
slag removing The process of re-extracting aluminum from the dross during flux treatment in an aluminum melting furnace.
slide caliper A tool for precisely measuring lengths. The accuracy of measurements can be improved by using a Vernier scale.
slinging The task of attaching the wires, hooks, etc., of a crane to molds or equipment, giving corresponding signals to the crane operator and more when using a crane to lift and move objects.
sludge Precipitates like cut chips, rust or metal powder in a liquid such as hydraulic fluid, cutting oil or the like.
soldering mark A flaw on a material left from wear or dissolution due to seizure or sand burning.
solenoid A cylindrical coil around which a conductive wire is wound in a spiral. Used for operating the valves in a hydraulic unit, etc.
solenoid valve A device combining an electromagnet with a valve and is used on hydraulic pressure units, etc. Activated with electric signals to open or close, it allows the flow of a fluid such as oil or air, stops the flow or switches its direction.
solidification A phenomenon whereby molten metal (liquid) cools and solidifies.
solution The process of melting an element or chemical compound (alloy component) into crystal grains and cooling it rapidly to prevent precipitates.
solution treatment Part of the process in a T6 heat treatment for aluminum, it refers to heating a work piece until it becomes a supersaturated solid solution.
spigot The Japanese equivalent for this word is said to originate from the Edo period carpenter's term inro (a traditional wooden case for small objects). Since a wooden inro was made so that the various lids and main body fit together perfectly, this term was adopted for such structures in casting. A spigot is used mainly for slip prevention, and when two parts meet, it is in an interlocking shape where one side component fits into the other component.
spilt molten metal When molten metal spills from a mold for some reason.
sprue A part for pouring molten metal into a product cavity during injection in high-pressure die casting. It is also called a “sprue core.”
sprue core A mold component for guiding molten metal injected from the plunger tip toward the mold cavity.
squareness The degree of deviation from a reference line or from a plane rectangular to another plane. The Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) define this as the “amount of deviation of a straight-line shape or a plane shape that should be perpendicular from a geometric straight line or a geometric plane that is perpendicular to a datum straight line or a datum plane.”
stalk In low-pressure die casting, a crucible located in the lower portion or the surface of the molten metal in a holding furnace is pressurized by air, and a fill stalk is a conduit for supplying molten metal to the upper portion to pour it into the casting mold. Stalks are used for casting with iron, ceramics, etc.
straight knurl The machining of fine, vertically parallel grooves into metallic parts. This type of knurl is common with watch dials and other metallic dials.
straightening The work of correcting the deformations induced by thermal stress, etc., during heat treatment or other stresses.
straightening annealing Annealing specifically meant for eliminating strains induced by thermal stress, residual stresses, etc.
strain A measure of the deformation of an object when it is subjected to a stress, indicating the degree of change in the object compared to its initial state.
strain measurement The act of measuring the strains sometimes generated in the solidification or cooling stage of the casting process due to contraction.
strainer A replaceable meshed item used for removing impurities from and steadying the flow of molten metal.
strontium A chemical element represented by the symbol Sr. When added to an aluminum-silicon alloy, it modifies the grain size of the silicon, which improves the mechanical properties of a casting.
suction The act of drawing in air, etc., using a vacuum pump or vacuum tank.
support pillar A support strut installed between the back face of the movable mold and movable platen in a high-pressure die casting machine, etc., to prevent momentary distortion due to injection pressure.
surface as cast When the cast piece's surface texture remains as-is after machining.
surface thermometer An instrument for measuring the surface temperature of an object. A Type K contact thermocouple is commonly used in casting processes but some non-contact models are used for measuring the temperature of molten metal.
switchboard Electric equipment installed in large facilities such as buildings or factories for receiving high-voltage electric power from power companies. The voltage of the power received is converted to a voltage usable by factory equipment by the distribution board.
swivel type A motion making a circular path of movement about a rotational axis. Devices that operate by swiveling leave an open space above the target component and help make devices simpler, making it an often-used type.
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